unit 7 culture and customs
Culture and Customs
What is culture?
? Culture can be defined as all the ways of life including arts, beliefs and institutions of a population that are passed down from generation to generation. ? It includes codes of manners, dress, language, religion, rituals, norms of behavior such as law and morality, and systems of belief as well as the art.
? While you are learning a language, is it important for you to learn about the cultures go with it? Explain?
? Culture is but the fine flowering of real education, and it is the training of the feeling, the tastes and the manners that makes it so. ? Culture is not only the positive result of meaningful education, but also the results of people’s feeling, judgments about things and ways of behaving.
? Culture is everything. Culture is the way we dress, the way we carry our heads, the way we walk, the way we tie our ties---- it is not only the fact of writing books or building houses. ? Culture is not only reflected in books and architectures, but also in our clothing, gestures as head movements and postures as the way we walk and so on.
? Men are so inclined to content themselves with what is commonest; the spirit and the senses so easily grow dead to the impressions of the beautiful and perfect, that every one should study, by all methods, to nourish in his mind the faculty of feeling this things….For this reason, one ought every day at least, to hear a little song, read a good poem, see a fine picture, and, if it were possible, to speak a few reasonable words. ? People are tending to be satisfied with the most ordinary things around them, they make few impressions of the beautiful and perfect things in mind, though they should appreciate those to keep their feelings alive. Therefore, everyone ought to do at least one thing, such as hearing a little song, seeing a beautiful picture, of even speaking a few reasonable words.
Reading one: Culture and Food Habits
? Part 1(para1): different eating habits patterned by culture ? Part 2(para2-4): three stages of development ? Part 3(para5-7): reasons for different culture patterns of getting food
part1(para1): the improtance of the study of time perception part2(para2-6): time perception from a practical perspective part3(para7):time perception from a theoretical perspective
Reading three: Adapting to the New World ? Culture shock: ? The feeling of disorientation or confusion that can occur when a person leaves a familiar place and moves to an unfamiliar one.
Phases of culture shock ? The shock (of moving to a foreign country) often consists of distinct phases, though not everyone passes through these phases and not everyone is in the new culture long enough to pass through all three:
? - During this period the differences between the old and new culture are seen in a romantic light, wonderful and new. For example, in moving to a new country, an individual might love the new foods, the pace of the life, the people's habits, the buildings and so on. During the first few weeks most people are fascinated by the new culture. They associate with the nationals that speak their language and are polite to the foreigners. This period is full of observations and new discoveries. Like many honeymoons this stage eventually ends.
? - After some time (usually weeks), differences between the old and new culture become apparent and may create anxiety. One may long for food the way it is prepared in one's native country, may find the pace of life too fast or slow, may find the people's habits annoying, disgusting, and irritating etc. This phase is often marked by mood swings caused by minor issues or without apparent reason. This is where excitement turns to disappointment and more and more differences start to occur. Depression is not uncommon.
? - Again, after some time (usually 6 – 12 months), one grows accustomed to the new culture and develops routines. One knows what to expect in most situations and the host country no longer feels all that new. One becomes concerned with basic living again, and things become more "normal".One starts to develop problemsolving skills for dealing with the culture, and begins to accept the culture ways with a positive attitude. The culture begins to make sense, and negative reactions and responses to the culture are reduced. Reaching this stage requires a constructive response to culture shock with effective means of adaption.
Reverse Culture Shock ? Also, Reverse Culture Shock may take place — returning to one's home culture after growing accustomed to a new one can produce the same effects as described above. This results from the psychosomatic and psychological consequences of the readjustment process to the primary culture. The affected person often finds this more surprising and difficult to deal with than the original culture shock.
? What’s the author’s attitude towards the alien culture at first? ? Why do Americans have high rates of heart attacks and obesity? ? Why is divorce rate lower in Korea than in America? ? What do Koreans and Americans have in common? ? What’s the author’s attitude towards cultural differences at last?
? Part 1 (para1): It is difficult to adjust to American culture. ? Part 2 (para2-5): Three differences between American and Korean culture are listed. ? Part 3 (para6): Koreans and Americans have much in common.
The three differences
? Language ? Food ? Marriage
The writing technique: comparison &contrast
? A comparison explains how things are similar. ? A contrast shows how things are different.
The principles needed to be followed
? Only items (usually two) of the same general class can be compared/contrasted. ? A comparison/contrast essay usually follows one of these two patterns: the subject-bysubject pattern or the point-to-point pattern. ? The comparison/contrast should be balanced; the two items are to be given equal treatment.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Thesis statement: X is a better school then Y. 1. X A. student body B. teaching staff C. library and other facilities D. campus 2. Y A. student body B. teaching staff C. library and other facilities D. campus
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1. student body A. X B. Y 2. teaching staff A. X B. Y 3. library and other facilities A. X B. Y 4, campus A. X B. Y
Some transitions used in comparison
? Both, each, at the same time, similarly, like, likewise, as, too, also, compared with.
Some transitions used in contrast
? On the other hand, on the contrary, in contrast (with/to), instead (of), the opposite (of), unlike, although, while, whereas, but, however, yet, nevertheless
Gary Faye Locke (Traditional Chinese:駱 家輝)
? an American politician and the current United States Ambassador to China
? Locke was the 21st Governor of Washington, serving from 1997 to 2005. He was the first governor of a state in the Continental United States of Asian descent, and is the only Chinese American ever to serve as a governor. He was then appointed by President Barack Obama as United States Secretary of Commerce which he served as until August 1, 2011, when President Obama appointed Locke Ambassador to China.
Reading four: The Struggle to Be an All American Girl
? Does the writer succeed in distinguish herself from others in Chinatown?
? Forcibly, she walked us the seven long, hilly blocks from our home to school, depositing our defiant tearful faces before the stern principal. ? She would accompany us across the seven long, hilly blocks and put us before the serious-looking principal though we were unwilling an crying.
? More times than not, I had tried to disassociate myself from the nagging loud voice that followed after me when I was walking around casually in the nearby American supermarket outside Chinatown. ? Very often I tried to avoid being connected to my annoying, loud grandmother who followed after me when I was walking around casually in the nearby American supermarket outside Chinatown.
? He was especially hard on my mother, criticizing her, often cruelly, for her pidgin speech----smatterings of Chinese scattered like shop suey in her conversation. ? He treated my mother severely and unkindly and very often criticized her substandard English which was mixed with Chinese.
? When he tripped over his own tongue, he’d blame it on her. ? When he made a mistake in English, he would blame it on his mother.
J. D. Salinger.
? an American author, best known for his 1951 novel The Catcher in the Rye, the only novel he has had published, as well as for his reclusive nature. He has not published a new work since 1965 and has not been interviewed since 1980.
? The Catcher in the Rye is first published in the United States in 1951, the novel has been a frequently challenged book in its home country for its liberal use of profanity and portrayal of sexuality and teenage angst. ? Originally published for adults, the novel has become a common part of high school and college curricula throughout the English-speaking world; it has also been translated into almost all of the world's major languages. Around 250,000 copies are sold each year, with total sales of more than 65 million.
? The novel was chosen by Time magazine as one of the 100 best English-language novels from 1923 to 2005. ? The novel's protagonist, Holden Caulfield, has become an icon for teenage rebellion and defiance. Written in the first person, The Catcher in the Rye follows Holden's experiences in New York City in the days following his expulsion from Pencey Prep, a college preparatory school.
The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck
? John Steinbeck (February 27, 1902— December 20, 1968) was one of the bestknown and most widely read American writers of the 20th century. He wrote the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel The Grapes of Wrath, published in 1939 and the novel Of Mice and Men, published in 1937. In all, he wrote twenty-five books, including sixteen novels, six non-fiction books and several collections of short stories. In 1962 Steinbeck received the Nobel Prize for Literature.
? The Grapes of Wrath is a classic novel published in 1939 and written by John Steinbeck, who was awarded the Pulitzer Prize and the Nobel Prize for Literature. It is frequently read in high school and college literature classes. A celebrated Hollywood film version, starring Henry Fonda and directed by John Ford, was made in 1940; however, the endings of the book and the movie differ greatly.
? Part I Find out the synonym for the given word. （每小题1分，共10分） ? Part Ⅱ Find a word from the box below to complete each sentence. Change word forms where necessary.（每小题1 分，共10分） ? Part Ⅲ Skimming and scanning. Y/N/NG.Complete the sentences. （每 小题1分，共10分）
? PartⅣ Reading comprehension. （每小 题2分，共60分） ? PartⅤParaphrase the underlined phrases to show your understanding. （每小题1分，共10分）